Four cardinal virtues that are central to the stoic philosophy

Stoicism identifies four cardinal virtues that are central to the philosophy. These are:

  1. Wisdom (phronesis): This refers to the ability to make good judgments and to have practical wisdom. It involves being able to discern what is truly valuable and what is not, and to act accordingly.
  2. Courage (andreia): This is the ability to face difficulty, danger, or pain with grace and without fear. It involves being willing to do what is right, even when it is hard.
  3. Justice (dikaiosyne): This refers to the sense of fairness and equity that governs our relationships with others. It involves treating others with respect, and giving them what they are due.
  4. Temperance (sophrosyne): This is the ability to exercise self-control, to resist temptation, and to live a moderate life. It involves balancing our desires with reason, and avoiding excess.

According to Stoicism, these virtues are interrelated and mutually reinforcing. By practicing these virtues, we can cultivate a life of eudaimonia, or flourishing.

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