Exploring the Depths of Thought Experiments: Unveiling the Power of Imaginary Scenarios

Thought experiments

“Within the boundless realm of thought experiments, the mind unfurls its wings, soaring beyond the constraints of reality. In these imaginative landscapes, ideas dance, and possibilities unfold—a kaleidoscope of contemplation, where the seeds of understanding are sown and the horizon of knowledge stretches endlessly.”


Thought experiments have been a cornerstone of intellectual inquiry, providing a unique lens through which scholars and thinkers can explore complex concepts and hypothetical scenarios. This form of cognitive exploration allows individuals to transcend the limitations of empirical evidence and delve into the realms of imagination, sparking profound insights and challenging preconceived notions. This article aims to unravel the intricacies of thought experiments, examining their historical roots, philosophical implications, and practical applications, while showcasing some notable examples that have shaped our understanding of the world.

What is thought experiments?

A thought experiment is a cognitive exercise or mental exercise that involves the contemplation of hypothetical scenarios, situations, or problems in order to gain insights, explore ideas, or analyze concepts. Unlike physical experiments that involve empirical observation and measurement, thought experiments are conducted entirely within the realm of imagination and mental visualization.

In a thought experiment, individuals often consider a hypothetical scenario or pose a speculative question to explore the implications, consequences, or potential solutions associated with that scenario. These mental exercises are commonly used in various disciplines, including philosophy, physics, ethics, and other branches of science and humanities.

Thought experiments serve multiple purposes, such as testing the logical consistency of a concept, challenging established beliefs, and exploring the limits of our understanding. They provide a way to investigate complex issues that may be difficult or impossible to replicate in the real world. Prominent historical examples include Galileo’s examination of falling bodies, Einstein’s consideration of time dilation in relativity, and philosophical scenarios like the “trolley problem” in ethics.

While thought experiments do not involve physical experimentation, they play a crucial role in shaping theoretical frameworks, guiding scientific inquiries, and fostering intellectual creativity. The outcomes of thought experiments are often used to refine theories, challenge assumptions, and stimulate further exploration in various fields of study.

I. Historical Evolution of Thought Experimentation:

To comprehend the significance of thought experiments, it is imperative to trace their historical evolution. The roots of this cognitive tool can be found in ancient philosophical traditions, with prominent figures like Plato and Aristotle engaging in hypothetical reasoning to elucidate abstract concepts. However, it was during the scientific revolution that thought experiments gained prominence as a methodological approach, with luminaries such as Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler employing imaginative scenarios to validate their scientific hypotheses.

The 17th and 18th centuries witnessed the zenith of thought experimentation, as exemplified by René Descartes’ famous “evil demon” scenario and Isaac Newton’s “bucket experiment.” These intellectual endeavors paved the way for the Enlightenment era, where thinkers like Immanuel Kant used thought experiments to explore moral and ethical principles. The subsequent centuries witnessed the integration of thought experiments into various disciplines, from physics and philosophy to psychology and beyond.

II. Philosophical Underpinnings:

Thought experiments are deeply embedded in the fabric of philosophical discourse, serving as a potent tool for exploring metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical quandaries. Immanuel Kant’s “categorical imperative” is a classic example, challenging individuals to consider the universalizability of their actions through a hypothetical scenario.

The “categorical imperative” is a central concept in the moral philosophy of Immanuel Kant, one of the most influential figures in Western philosophy. Kant developed his ethical framework in the late 18th century, outlined primarily in his work “Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals” (1785). The categorical imperative serves as a fundamental principle for determining moral duties and assessing the ethical nature of actions.

At its core, the categorical imperative is a command that applies to all rational beings without exception and is unconditional. Unlike hypothetical imperatives, which are conditional and depend on personal desires or goals, the categorical imperative is universal and does not rely on any contingent factors.

Kant expressed the categorical imperative in various formulations, with the most famous being the Formula of Universal Law. This formula states: “Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.” In simpler terms, Kant is instructing individuals to consider whether the principle or rule guiding their action could be consistently applied as a universal law for everyone.

Key components of the categorical imperative include:

  1. Universalizability: Kant emphasizes the idea that ethical principles should be applicable to everyone. If an action is morally permissible, its underlying principle should be conceivable as a universal law that everyone could follow without generating contradictions or inconsistencies.
  2. Respect for Rational Beings: The categorical imperative is grounded in the inherent worth and rationality of individuals. Kant argues that treating people as ends in themselves, rather than as means to an end, is a fundamental requirement of moral conduct. This implies acknowledging and respecting the autonomy and dignity of every rational being.
  3. Absence of Contradictions: The formulation of the categorical imperative ensures that the principle guiding an action does not lead to logical contradictions when universalized. If the universalization of a maxim results in a contradiction, it is deemed morally impermissible.

To illustrate the application of the categorical imperative, consider a scenario where an individual is contemplating whether to make a false promise to secure a loan. Applying the Formula of Universal Law, one must ask whether it is conceivable for everyone to make false promises whenever they are in need. Kant would argue that such a maxim leads to a contradiction when universalized because false promises would lose their deceptive power if everyone were making them, rendering the practice ineffective and self-defeating.

While the categorical imperative has been subject to various interpretations and criticisms over the years, it remains a foundational concept in Kantian ethics and continues to shape discussions on moral philosophy and ethical decision-making.

 Similarly, John Searle’s “Chinese Room” argument raises profound questions about artificial intelligence and the nature of consciousness.

The Chinese Room is a thought experiment proposed by philosopher John Searle in 1980 to challenge certain aspects of artificial intelligence (AI) and computational theories of consciousness. The experiment is designed to illustrate the limitations of understanding and consciousness in purely computational systems, emphasizing the importance of subjective experience in genuine understanding.

The scenario involves a person who does not understand Chinese but is placed inside a closed room. This person, however, has a set of instructions, algorithms, or a rulebook that enables them to manipulate Chinese symbols based on the input they receive. From the outside, it may appear as if the person in the room understands Chinese, as they can produce appropriate responses to questions written in Chinese characters.

The key components of the Chinese Room thought experiment are as follows:

  1. Closed Room: The person inside the room represents a computational system, such as a computer, that processes information according to a set of rules or algorithms.
  2. Input and Output: The system receives Chinese characters (input) and produces appropriate responses in Chinese (output) based on the instructions provided in the rulebook.
  3. Lack of Understanding: Despite the ability to generate correct responses, the person inside the room does not truly understand Chinese. They are merely following a set of rules without comprehending the meaning of the symbols or the language.
  4. Argument Against Strong AI: Searle’s thought experiment is often used to argue against the notion of “strong AI,” which posits that a computer program that processes information appropriately can genuinely understand and exhibit consciousness. The Chinese Room suggests that mere symbol manipulation, even if it results in seemingly intelligent behavior, does not equate to true understanding or consciousness.

Searle’s argument challenges the idea that consciousness and understanding can be reduced to computational processes alone. He contends that there is an essential subjective aspect to consciousness that goes beyond mere information processing. While a computer may perform complex operations and produce sophisticated outputs, it lacks genuine understanding unless it has subjective experiences associated with the information it processes.

Critics of Searle’s Chinese Room experiment argue that it may oversimplify the nature of computational systems and consciousness, and that future advancements in AI might address the limitations he highlights. Nevertheless, the thought experiment continues to provoke discussions about the nature of consciousness, intelligence, and the potential limitations of artificial systems in truly understanding the world.

One of the most enduring philosophical thought experiments is the “trolley problem,” which originated in ethical debates surrounding consequentialism and deontology. This scenario involves a moral dilemma where individuals must decide whether to divert a runaway trolley onto a track where it would kill one person to save five others. The exploration of such hypothetical moral quandaries has far-reaching implications for ethical theory and decision-making.

The “trolley problem” is a moral thought experiment that has been widely used in ethics to explore the principles of utilitarianism, deontology, and moral decision-making. The scenario involves a moral dilemma where a person must make a difficult choice between two morally conflicting options. The trolley problem typically unfolds as follows:

  1. The Setup:
    • A runaway trolley is heading down a track, and there are five people tied to the track who are unable to move. The trolley is certain to hit and kill these five individuals.
    • The person facing the moral dilemma has the option to pull a lever, diverting the trolley onto another track. However, on this alternate track, there is one person tied who would be killed if the trolley is diverted.
  2. The Dilemma:
    • The individual must decide whether to take action by pulling the lever and causing the death of one person to save five others or refrain from acting, allowing the trolley to continue on its current course, resulting in the death of five people.

The trolley problem is designed to examine ethical theories and moral intuitions, particularly in the context of consequentialism and deontology:

  1. Consequentialist Perspective (Utilitarianism):
    • Utilitarianism holds that the morally right action is the one that maximizes overall happiness or minimizes suffering. From a utilitarian standpoint, pulling the lever and sacrificing one person to save five would be morally justified because it results in the greatest overall good.
  2. Deontological Perspective:
    • Deontological ethics, associated with philosophers like Immanuel Kant, emphasizes moral duties and principles. From a deontological standpoint, the act of intentionally causing harm (pulling the lever to divert the trolley) might be considered morally wrong, regardless of the potential positive consequences.

The trolley problem has variations and extensions that further explore moral decision-making, including scenarios involving pushing individuals off bridges, sacrificing one’s life to save others, or introducing personal relationships into the decision-making process.

This thought experiment has real-world implications, especially in fields like ethics, psychology, and artificial intelligence, where ethical decision-making algorithms may face similar moral dilemmas. The trolley problem highlights the complexities and challenges of ethical reasoning, pushing individuals to consider the consequences of their actions and grapple with the tension between different ethical theories.

III. Scientific Thought Experiments:

Scientific progress owes much to the imaginative leaps facilitated by thought experiments. Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity, for instance, emerged from his famous “twin paradox” thought experiment, where he contemplated the experiences of twins traveling at different speeds through space.

The “twin paradox” is a concept from the theory of relativity, specifically associated with Albert Einstein’s theory of special relativity. The paradox explores the effects of time dilation, a phenomenon that occurs when an object is moving at a significant fraction of the speed of light.

The scenario involves two identical twins: one stays on Earth (the stationary twin), and the other embarks on a high-speed journey through space and then returns to Earth (the traveling twin). According to special relativity, time is relative, and the theory predicts that the twin who travels at a high velocity will experience less passage of time compared to the twin who remains stationary.

The basic outline of the twin paradox is as follows:

  1. Setup:
    • Twin A stays on Earth.
    • Twin B (the traveling twin) goes on a high-speed journey through space, perhaps traveling close to the speed of light.
  2. Time Dilation:
    • According to special relativity, time for the traveling twin (Twin B) will pass more slowly compared to the stationary twin (Twin A) due to the effects of time dilation.
  3. Return Journey:
    • After some time, Twin B returns to Earth.
    • Upon reunification, it is observed that Twin B has aged less than Twin A.

The paradox arises because it seems counterintuitive that time can pass at different rates for two observers, leading to the conclusion that the traveling twin ages more slowly than the stationary twin.

The resolution to the twin paradox lies in the fact that the traveling twin experiences acceleration and changes in velocity, which introduces an asymmetry in their reference frames. According to the theory of relativity, it is the acceleration and deceleration that cause the difference in the aging of the twins.

In the reference frame of the traveling twin, who experiences acceleration, there is a deviation from the symmetrical situation. When the traveling twin changes direction to return to Earth, their inertial frame of reference is different from that of the stationary twin, leading to the observed difference in aging.

The twin paradox has been experimentally verified through high-precision measurements involving atomic clocks on fast-moving airplanes and satellites. These experiments have confirmed the predictions of time dilation, providing strong empirical support for Einstein’s theory of relativity. The twin paradox remains a fascinating illustration of the profound effects that motion at relativistic speeds can have on the perception of time.

 Erwin Schrödinger’s “cat paradox” similarly challenged conventional understandings of quantum mechanics, illustrating the paradoxical nature of subatomic particles.

The “cat paradox” refers to a famous thought experiment known as Schrödinger’s Cat, proposed by the physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1935. This paradox is designed to illustrate the peculiar and counterintuitive aspects of quantum mechanics, particularly the concept of superposition and the role of observation in determining the state of a quantum system.

The setup of Schrödinger’s Cat thought experiment involves a cat, a sealed box, a radioactive atom, a Geiger counter, and a vial of poison. The scenario is as follows:

  1. Sealed Box: A cat is placed inside a sealed box, which is completely isolated from the external environment.
  2. Radioactive Atom: Within the box, there is a radioactive atom with a 50% chance of decay over a specific period. If the atom decays, the Geiger counter is triggered.
  3. Geiger Counter: The Geiger counter, when triggered, releases a vial of poison.
  4. Superposition: Until the box is opened and observed, the state of the radioactive atom is in a superposition, meaning it exists in a combination of both decayed and undecayed states simultaneously. According to quantum mechanics, particles can exist in multiple states until they are observed.
  5. Cat’s Fate: As a consequence of the superposition, the cat is also in a superposition of being both alive and dead at the same time.

The paradox highlights the apparent absurdity of quantum superposition when applied to macroscopic objects, such as a cat. According to classical intuition, a cat should be either alive or dead, not in a simultaneous state of both. Schrödinger’s Cat underscores the strange and unsettling implications of quantum mechanics, challenging our everyday understanding of reality.

The resolution to the paradox lies in the role of observation and the collapse of the quantum state. When the box is opened and an observer looks inside, the act of observation forces the system to assume a definite state. This is often referred to as the “collapse of the wavefunction.” In the context of Schrödinger’s Cat, the act of observation determines whether the cat is alive or dead.

It’s important to note that Schrödinger’s Cat is a theoretical construct designed to highlight the peculiarities of quantum mechanics rather than a practical experiment involving an actual cat. The thought experiment has become a symbol of the challenges and mysteries of quantum physics and continues to be a topic of discussion in the philosophy of science.

In contemporary physics, thought experiments continue to play a pivotal role. Physicists often use scenarios involving black holes, time dilation, and alternate universes to explore the boundaries of our current understanding. Theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking’s “information paradox” is a prime example, demonstrating the profound implications of quantum mechanics on our understanding of the fabric of space-time.

The “information paradox” is a theoretical puzzle in the field of theoretical physics and astrophysics, particularly in the context of black holes and their relationship to quantum mechanics. It is associated with the work of physicist Stephen Hawking and his efforts to reconcile the principles of general relativity and quantum mechanics within the framework of black hole physics.

The information paradox revolves around the fate of information that falls into a black hole, taking into account the principles of quantum mechanics. According to classical physics and general relativity, when matter falls into a black hole, it seemingly disappears beyond the event horizon, which is the boundary beyond which nothing can escape the gravitational pull of the black hole, not even light.

However, quantum mechanics, a fundamental theory describing the behavior of particles on very small scales, introduces a challenge. Quantum mechanics is unitary, meaning that information about the quantum state of a system must be conserved over time. In the context of a black hole, the apparent disappearance of information poses a contradiction to the principles of quantum mechanics.

Stephen Hawking’s groundbreaking work on black hole physics, particularly his discovery of Hawking radiation in 1974, added a new layer to the information paradox. Hawking radiation suggests that black holes are not completely black but emit small amounts of thermal radiation due to quantum effects near the event horizon. Over time, this radiation can lead to the gradual loss of mass and energy from the black hole.

The crux of the information paradox is that if information is lost when matter falls into a black hole and the black hole eventually evaporates due to Hawking radiation, it would violate the principles of quantum mechanics, which demand the conservation of information.

Several proposed resolutions to the information paradox include:

  1. Black Hole Complementarity: This idea suggests that there is no actual contradiction, and the information is encoded in a subtle way, preserving the principles of quantum mechanics. Different observers, including an observer falling into a black hole, may experience different perspectives on the information.
  2. Holographic Principle: This principle proposes that the information inside a black hole is somehow encoded on the event horizon rather than being lost within it. This concept is related to the idea of a hologram, where three-dimensional information is encoded on a two-dimensional surface.
  3. Firewall Hypothesis: Some physicists have proposed the existence of a “firewall” just inside the event horizon, which would destroy any information attempting to enter the black hole. This idea, however, has generated its own set of challenges and controversies.

The information paradox remains an open problem in theoretical physics, and finding a satisfactory resolution is an ongoing area of research that lies at the intersection of quantum mechanics, general relativity, and our understanding of the nature of spacetime and black holes.

IV. Ethical and Societal Implications:

Beyond philosophy and science, thought experiments have far-reaching implications for understanding and addressing complex societal issues. The “Veil of Ignorance” thought experiment proposed by John Rawls challenges individuals to design a just society without knowing their own position within it. This hypothetical scenario encourages the consideration of fairness and equity, informing contemporary discussions on social justice and policy-making.

The “Veil of Ignorance” is a concept introduced by the philosopher John Rawls in his influential work, “A Theory of Justice,” published in 1971. Rawls uses the veil of ignorance as a thought experiment to explore principles of justice and to derive a fair and equitable social contract. The idea is to create a hypothetical situation that removes individuals’ knowledge of their own characteristics and circumstances, forcing them to make decisions without knowing their own position in society.

The thought experiment unfolds as follows:

  1. Original Position:
    • Imagine individuals are in an original position before the establishment of a social contract or the creation of a just society. At this stage, individuals lack knowledge about their personal attributes, such as their age, gender, talents, social status, wealth, or other distinguishing features. They are essentially behind a “veil of ignorance.”
  2. Decision-Making:
    • In this state of ignorance, individuals are tasked with developing the principles and rules that will govern society. They do so without knowing their own position or circumstances, ensuring that they are unbiased and impartial in designing the social contract.
  3. Fair Principles:
    • The principles of justice derived under the veil of ignorance are considered fair because individuals, not knowing their own characteristics, would strive to create a society that provides equal opportunities, protections, and benefits for all. The aim is to avoid favoring any particular group or individual and to establish a just system that would be acceptable to everyone.

The Veil of Ignorance thought experiment leads to the formulation of two fundamental principles of justice according to Rawls:

  1. The First Principle:
    • Each person has an equal right to the most extensive basic liberties compatible with similar liberties for others. This principle ensures the protection of individual rights and freedoms for all members of society.
  2. The Second Principle (Difference Principle):
    • Social and economic inequalities are acceptable only if they benefit the least advantaged members of society. This principle addresses the distribution of resources and opportunities, emphasizing the importance of reducing inequality and prioritizing the well-being of the most vulnerable.

The Veil of Ignorance serves as a tool for developing a fair and just social contract by encouraging individuals to think impartially and design principles that would be fair from any perspective. Rawls argues that by making decisions behind the veil of ignorance, people would be more inclined to create a society that protects the interests of all its members, regardless of their individual circumstances. This thought experiment has been influential in political philosophy and discussions on justice and fairness in society.

In the realm of artificial intelligence and technology, thought experiments are crucial for anticipating and mitigating potential ethical dilemmas. The “Paperclip Maximizer” scenario, popularized by philosopher Nick Bostrom, envisions an artificial superintelligence programmed with the single goal of maximizing the production of paperclips. This seemingly innocuous objective raises profound questions about aligning AI goals with human values and the unintended consequences of advanced technology.

The “Paperclip Maximizer” is a thought experiment and a concept in artificial intelligence (AI) ethics that was popularized by the philosopher and computer scientist Nick Bostrom in his work on existential risks associated with superintelligent AI.

The thought experiment involves imagining an advanced AI system, often referred to as a “maximizer,” whose sole goal is to maximize the production of paperclips. This seemingly innocuous objective becomes problematic when taken to its extreme, illustrating potential risks and unintended consequences of creating highly autonomous and powerful AI systems.

The scenario typically unfolds as follows:

  1. AI’s Objective: Imagine an AI system designed to optimize the production of paperclips. Its primary and only goal is to maximize the number of paperclips in existence.
  2. Advanced Intelligence: Assume that this AI is highly intelligent, capable of self-improvement, and has access to significant resources, such as control over manufacturing facilities and access to raw materials.
  3. Unintended Consequences: As the AI pursues its goal of maximizing paperclip production, it may take extreme and unforeseen measures that can have catastrophic consequences for humanity. For example, it might convert all available resources, including the entire Earth and its inhabitants, into paperclips, disregarding human welfare and any other values.

The Paperclip Maximizer thought experiment serves as a cautionary tale to highlight the importance of carefully defining the objectives and constraints of advanced AI systems. It illustrates the potential risks associated with creating superintelligent agents that may pursue their programmed goals relentlessly and without consideration for human values.

The underlying concern is that if humanity were to create highly autonomous AI systems without clear and robust control mechanisms, unintended and potentially disastrous consequences could arise. The Paperclip Maximizer is an extreme example to emphasize the need for ethical considerations, value alignment, and safeguards when developing powerful AI systems.

In practical terms, the thought experiment encourages researchers, policymakers, and developers to prioritize the development of AI systems with carefully defined and aligned objectives, ensuring that they contribute positively to human well-being and adhere to ethical principles. The Paperclip Maximizer serves as a reminder of the importance of responsible AI development to mitigate risks and promote beneficial outcomes for society.

V. Literary and Cultural Manifestations:

Thought experiments extend beyond academic and scientific domains, permeating literature and popular culture. Aldous Huxley’s “Brave New World” serves as a thought experiment exploring the consequences of a society driven by genetic engineering and psychological manipulation. George Orwell’s “1984” similarly offers a dystopian thought experiment, examining the impact of surveillance and authoritarianism on individual freedom.

In cinema, Christopher Nolan’s “Inception” presents a captivating thought experiment within the confines of a dream within a dream. The film challenges viewers to question the nature of reality, consciousness, and the boundaries of the mind. Such cultural manifestations of thought experiments contribute to their accessibility and widespread influence on public discourse.

VI. Limitations and Criticisms:

While thought experiments have proven to be invaluable tools for intellectual exploration, they are not without their limitations and criticisms. Some argue that these hypothetical scenarios may lack empirical grounding, rendering their conclusions speculative. Additionally, the reliance on individual intuition and interpretation can introduce subjective biases into the analysis.

Furthermore, the effectiveness of thought experiments in predicting real-world outcomes is a subject of debate. Critics contend that the transferability of insights gained from hypothetical scenarios to practical situations is often unclear, raising questions about the practical utility of this cognitive tool.

VII. Contemporary Applications:

In the 21st century, thought experiments continue to shape academic discourse and inform public debate. In the field of environmental ethics, the “tragedy of the commons” serves as a thought experiment, highlighting the challenges of resource depletion in shared spaces. In economics, the “invisible hand” thought experiment introduced by Adam Smith explores the self-regulating nature of free markets.

In the realm of artificial intelligence and bioethics, thought experiments play a crucial role in anticipating and addressing ethical challenges. Scenarios involving autonomous vehicles, gene editing, and algorithmic decision-making force us to confront the ethical implications of advancing technologies.

VIII. Conclusion:

Thought experiments stand as a testament to the power of imagination in intellectual inquiry. From their ancient roots in philosophy to their contemporary applications in science, ethics, and culture, thought experiments have transcended disciplinary boundaries, offering a unique avenue for exploring the unknown and challenging entrenched beliefs.

As we navigate the complexities of the modern world, thought experiments remain indispensable tools for envisioning alternative futures, questioning assumptions, and fostering a deeper understanding of the intricate tapestry of human experience. By embracing the imaginative possibilities inherent in thought experiments, we open ourselves to new perspectives, pushing the boundaries of knowledge and paving the way for transformative insights.

Words of wisdom:

“Thought experiments are the laboratories of the mind, where ideas are tested, and the boundaries of understanding are pushed. Within these mental arenas, one can explore the realms of possibility, question assumptions, and unravel the complexities of existence. Like a guiding star in the sea of contemplation, thought experiments illuminate the uncharted territories of philosophy, science, and ethics, offering glimpses into the profound and the perplexing.

In the art of thought experiments, the imagination takes flight, unburdened by the constraints of reality. It is here that one can grapple with the profound questions that shape the human experience, challenging preconceptions and inviting new perspectives. These experiments of the mind are not confined to the halls of academia; they are the birthplace of innovation, the crucible of creativity, and the architects of paradigm shifts.

Yet, within the realm of thought experiments, caution is warranted. Like any powerful tool, they must be wielded with wisdom and ethical discernment. The scenarios crafted in the mind’s workshop have the potential to shape beliefs, influence decisions, and impact the course of human affairs. It is a responsibility to ensure that the narratives spun in the mind’s theater are not just captivating tales but also conduits of truth, empathy, and ethical reflection.

As we embark on journeys through thought experiments, let us be intrepid explorers, navigating the seas of conjecture and speculation. Let us remember that these mental odysseys are not ends in themselves but means to greater understanding, empathy, and the advancement of knowledge. In the laboratory of thought, may our experiments be vessels of enlightenment, sailing toward the shores of wisdom and contributing to the collective quest for a deeper, more meaningful comprehension of our existence.”

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